Glossary

Absorption

The percentage of moisture that a stone absorbs by weight.
Refer to ASTM C97

Adhered Veneer

Veneer stone that is secured and supported by an approved bonding agent applied to the back of the veneer to an approved backing/substrate.
See Also: Thin Veneer

Arris Line

The imaginary or applied line, corner or edge from which leveling and plumbing is measured.

Ashlar

Building stone that is cut in square or rectangular shapes, typically used as a wall facing in a pattern of varying shapes and sizes.

Ashlar, Coursed

A pattern achieved by using stones of the same or approximately the same height. Horizontal joints run the entire length of the veneered area. Vertical joints are constantly broken, so that no two joints will be over one another.
Refer to our Rustic Cedar Ledgestone for some examples.

Ashlar, Random

A pattern where all the stone is cut into squares and rectangles of varying heights and lengths. Horizontal and vertical joints are fairly consistent.
Refer to our Country Collection for a full selection.

Ashlar, Sawn

A pattern where all the stone is shaped into squares and rectangles of a specific course height. Horizontal and vertical joints are fairly consistent.
Refer to our Hamilton Chateau for some examples.

ASTM

ASTM International is an organization that is responsible for developing technical standards for materials, products, services, etc.
The "American Society for Testing and Materials" was formed in 1898. The name was officially changed to "ASTM International" in 2001.

Backing

The part of a veneer wall behind its exterior facing designed to resist the load.

Bed Depth

The measurement of an individual piece of stone from the exposed face to back.
As an example, "Full Bed Depth Building Veneer" has a Bed Depth of ±4".

Bed Joint

A horizontal joint between stones, usually filled with bonding material such as mortar, lead or sealant.

Bedface

A pattern that features the natural texture of the stone's bedding planes.
Refer to our Chateau Collection for a full selection.

Bush Hammer Finish

A stone finish applied through a mechanical process which produces textured surfaces that vary from subtle to rough. This "dimpled" appearance can be for decorative purposes or to increase traction.

Caulking

The process of filling a joint by sealing with an elastic, adhesive compound. Sometimes referred to as a "Soft Joint".

Compresssive Strength

The measurement of a stone's ability withstand compression forces without failure (breaking).
Refer to ASTM C170

Course

A horizontal range of stone units the length of a wall.

Cut Stone

A natural building stone that has been cut and finished to specifications and is ready to be set in place.
Also known as "Dimensional Stone".

Dimensional Stone

A natural building stone that has been cut and finished to specifications and is ready to be set in place.
Also known as "Cut Stone".

Dressed

The cutting of rough chunks of stone by hand to create a square or rectangular shape. A stone which is sold as dressed stone generally refers to stone ready for installation.
Also known as "Hand Dressed".

Drywall

A stone wall that is constructed one stone upon another, without the use of any mortar; generally used for retaining walls.
Refer to our Wall Stone pages and our Landscape Gallery for a full selection.

Fabrication

The process of preparing and shaping the stone into its final form for a designated application.

Face

The dimension that refers to the exposed surface of a stone in its installed state.

Finish

The final surface applied to the face of a stone during fabrication.
Also known as "Surface Treatment".

Flamed Finish

A textured surface treatment applied by brief exposure to intense heat.  This treatment often simulates a stone's natural cleft texture, and can bring out the greatest brilliance of color within the stone.

Also known as a "Thermal Finish".

Flexural Strength

A bending strength test, in which a sample of stone of the project thickness is supported by two support rods creating a span of at least 10 times the thickness, and loaded to failure by two rods positioned at quarter points of the span.
See also "Modulus of Rupture".
Refer to ASTM C880

Full Veneer

Building veneer that has a nominal depth of 4" from the exposed face to back.  Walls are constructed one stone upon another, with the use of any mortar.  This type of construction does require footings or ledges.
Also known as "Full Bed Depth Veneer".


Hand Rocked Finish

Similar to splitfaced, except that the face of the stone is chiseled by hand, producing a bold appearance with a greater depth of character. This finish is sometimes applied to veneer stone, and often as an edge treatment to caps, copings, steps, window sills, and other elements.
Also known as "Rockfaced".

Height

The measurement of the exposed face of an individual piece of stone from top to bottom.
Also known as "Rise".

Joint

A space between installed stone units or between a dimension stone and the adjoining material. Common types of joints for building veneer are: Flush, Rake, Cove, Weathered, Bead, Stripped, V

Jumper

In ashlar patterns, a piece of stone of higher rise than adjacent stones, used to end a horizontal mortar joint at the point where it is set.

Length

The measurement of an individual piece of stone from left to right.

Modulus of Rupture

A bending strength test, in which a small sample of stone (8" x 4" x 2.25") is supported by two support rods, and loaded to failure by a third rod positioned at the center of the span.
See also "Flexural Strength".
Refer to ASTM C99

Mosaic

A pattern of stone that is generally irregular, with no definite pattern.
Refer to our Mosaic Collection or our Flagstone pages for a full selection.

Outcropping

Natural layers of irregular shaped pieces that are used in hardscapes.  Often used in the construction of retaining walls, water features, steps, and other elements of landscape design.

Refer to our Outcropping pages and our Landscape Gallery for a full selection.

Panel

The term that refers to a single unit of fabricated stone veneer.

Pounds per Square Inch (psi)

The unit of pressure resulting from a force of one pound of force applied to an area of one square inch.

Rift

The most pronounced direction of splitting or cleavage of a stone.

Sandblasted Finish

A matte-textured surface finish with no gloss, finished by application of a steady flow of sand and pressurized water or compressed air.

Sawnface Finish

A finish obtained from the process used in producing units of building stone. It varies in texture from smooth to rough, and is typically named for the type of material used in sawing, e.g. diamond sawn, sand sawn, chat sawn, and shot sawn.

Seamface

A stone that is harvested from an area that is immediately adjacent to a naturally occurring vein that runs vertically through the material.
"Weathered Edge" stone is Seamface material that that has been exposed to the elements giving it greater character and stratification.
Refer to our Harvest Collection for a full selection.

Setting

The process of installing dimension or building stone.

Splitface Finish

A stone that features a surface texture that has been broken or "split" to an approximate plane.
Also known as "Machine Split" or "Machine Cut".
Refer to our Country Collection for a full selection.

Thin Veneer

Building veneer that is cut to a consistent depth of ±1". This stone is adhered to a backing/substrate, and does not require footings or ledges.
See Also: Adhered Veneer

Tumbled Finish

A weathered, aging finish created when the stone is tumbled unto itself or with sand, pebbles, or steel bearings.  The resulting stone has a softer appearance both in texture and color.

Veneer

A facing of material that is applied to a structure or substrate - i.e. a facing of stone applied to the frame of a house.
It is a misconception that "veneer" is limited only to Thin Veneer. The term is applicable to Full Bed Depth and Thin/Adhered Stone.

Wall Stone

A stone wall that is constructed one stone upon another, with or without the use of any mortar; generally used for retaining walls.
Refer to our Wall Stone pages and our Landscape Gallery for a full selection.

If you have another question, please contact us